Origin and Causes
Sarcoma synovial is a rare soft tissue cancer that represents 2% of all sarcomas. Adolescents and young adults are the most at risk of developing sarcoma synovial. To date, no cause has been identified to explain the occurrence of this cancer. The identification of the t(X;18) gene translocation is diagnostic of a synovial sarcoma.
Symptoms and Signs
Sarcoma synovial can occur in any part of the body but is predominantly found in the arms and legs. It most often presents as a progressive, painless mass. Sarcoma synovial is an aggressive cancer that can cause metastases, primarily to the lungs.
When a sarcoma is suspected, the initial evaluation includes either a CT scan or MRI. The diagnosis is confirmed by a biopsy of the suspicious area. The investigation may be completed with a chest CT scan and a PET scan.
When a synovial sarcoma is localized, the preferred treatment is surgery with the goal of removing it completely. Radiation therapy before or after surgery is frequently necessary. Adjuvant chemotherapy (preventative) may occasionally be offered.
If metastases are found, chemotherapy is offered with the goal of controlling symptoms and disease progression. The preferred agents are doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and pazopanib. Clinical trials may also be explored.
After surgery, patients with sarcoma synovial will be closely monitored due to the risk of recurrence (when the cancer returns).